**** Background ****
몇 주 전에 할리우드의 거물 제작자인 하비 와인스타인이 과거 여자 영화배우들과 모델 등을 상대로 성추행과 성희롱을 노골적으로 일삼아 왔다는 보도가 나왔다. 이 보도를 통해 영화계에서 엄청난 권력을 가진 그의 어두운 면이 밝혀지면서 그에게 성추행을 당했다는 고발이 꼬리를 물고 이어졌다. 연이은 영화계 내 성추행 고발은 '웨인스타인 효과'라고 불리면서 다른 업계의 유명 인사들에 대해서도 그 동안 감춰진 추문들을 밝히는 여성들이 여기저기서 쏟아져 나왔다. 영화배우 케빈 스페이시, CBS의 유명 토크쇼 진행자 찰리 로즈, 코미디언 루이스 C.K 등은 물론, 공화당 로이 무어 앨라배마주 상원의원 보궐선거 후보, 민주당 미네소타주 상원의원인 앨 프랭커, 캘리포니아주 의회 민주당 원내총무인 라울 보카네그라 의원, 조지 W. 부시 전 대통령까지 정치인들도 성추행 혐의를 받으면서 미국 사회는 그야말로 충격에 빠졌다.
유명인에 의한 성추행에서 시작된 성추행 고발 현상은, 소셜 미디어로 확대되어 이른바 '미투 캠페인(Me too, 나도 당했다)'이 벌어지게 됐다. 주변 인물들에게 성추행을 당한 경험을 솔직하게 털어놓는 운동으로, 우리 사회에 성추행이 얼마나 만연해 있는지를 보여주고 있다. 많은 사람들은 미투 캠페인을 통해 성추행이나 성희롱 사례가 줄어들기를 바라고 있다.
(CNN) Six weeks after the first stories broke alleging that Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein engaged in a decadeslong pattern of sexual harassment(수십 년이나 성추행을 이어가다) (he denies it), the list of men accused of similar acts keeps getting longer. Some offer denials, but others offer more nuanced "explanations":
Charlie Rose, for example, apologized but added, "I always felt that I was pursuing shared feelings, even though I now realize I was mistaken. (지금은 잘못된 것이라고 알게 됐지만 항상 공유한 감정을 따른 것이라고 생각했다)" Sen. Al Franken apologized, too, but Michigan Rep. John Conyers only offered, through a spokesman: "The former staffer voluntarily decided to drop the case." Pixar's John Lasseter apologized and said, in part, "No matter how benign my intent, everyone has the right to set their own boundaries and have them respected. (나의 의도가 얼마나 무해한지와는 상관없이 모두가 자신의 경계를 규정짓고 있으며 그것들은 존중되어야 한다.)"
Meanwhile, the Alabama Republican party has reiterated its support (지지를 되풀이했다) of Senate candidate Roy Moore (as has President Trump), who faces allegations of sexual abuse (he denies them), and the number of women accusing former President George H.W. Bush of groping(조지 W. 부시 전 대통령이 몸을 만졌다고 주장하는 여성들의 숫자) has reached a whopping eight. Responding to four of the allegations last month, Bush's spokesman "explained" that elder Bush "has patted women's rears (여성의 엉덩이를 애무했다) in what he intended to be a good-natured manner," and apologized. For the more recent allegations, he offered no comment.
These and the many other men against whom allegations have been made -- some quite a bit more serious than patting "women's rears" -- are all ambitious, smart, powerful men -- surely men whom one would think might know better than to behave in this way. In some instances, famous men are alleged to have forced their tongues into an unwilling woman's mouth, walked around naked, or pulled out their penises to show around.
So why do they do it? And why are there so many? As was proved by the viral #metoo campaign, which saw hundreds of thousands of women sharing their own stories of sexual assault(수백 명의 여성들이 그들의 성추행 피해에 관한 자신의 이야기를 공유한), the problem is rampant; sadly, less an exception than the rule.
One possible explanation points to a deeply ingrained, hard to shake and society-wide sexism that teaches men that women are less dominant(남성들에게 여성은 주류가 아니라는 것을 가르치는 사회에 만연한 성차별). Many men -- and women, for that matter --still believe men do the asking out and the chasing (often, too, the paying for dinner).
Setting aside the flat-out predators who walk among us, this misunderstanding of men's roles may lead some men, especially those in the throes of sexual attraction, to let their desires override their intellect and their knowledge of what is wrong and what is right.
It would be nice to imagine that, in 2017, sexism is an outdated notion in the mainstream: After all, this is the same culture that created not just "The Bachelor" but also "The Bachelorette." Times have changed, right? As Harvey Weinstein put it in his official statement, "I came of age in the '60s and '70s, when all the rules about behavior and workplaces were different. That was the culture then. (나는 60년대 70년대 세대인데, 행동이나 직장에서 모든 규칙이 달랐던 시절이었다. 당시에는 그것이 문화였다.)"
And yet there's SO MUCH evidence it's the culture now (하지만 그것이 현재에도 문화라는 증거는 많다), too. We've only got to look at the defeat of a highly qualified, highly prepared, definitely female presidential candidate by a less qualified male opponent (himself, let's not forget, accused of sexual assault by multiple women; he denies it) as proof that sexism lives on. That he largely based his campaign on bluster and bullying (그는 자신의 선거 캠페인의 많은 부분을 엄포를 놓거나 약자에 대한 괴롭힘을 기본으로 했다) -- and was elected by 52% of men and 41% of women -- only strengthens the point.
Another explanation for the problem of sexual harassment, and one that similarly has roots in sexism, is that we still have a hard time defining (or agreeing on) what constitutes sexual harassment and assault.
A small recent survey by car-selling app Instamotor found that many men aren't clear on what sexual harassment is (많은 남성들이 성추행이 무엇인지 명확히 알지 못한다). Two in every three men surveyed didn't think repeated unwanted invitations to drinks, dinner, or dates was sexual harassment (반복적으로 원치 않은 술자리 및 저녁 초대, 그리고 데이트 요청을 하는 것이 성추행이라는 것을 알지 못한다). One in five didn't think sexual harassment should be a fireable offense (성추행은 해고될 수 있는 나쁜 짓이라고 생각하지 않았다).
What's more, many such behaviors are learned: In one story that ran on NPR, a "reformed catcaller" described growing up watching older men he admired holler at women in his Brooklyn neighborhood. "All my life I heard girls are cats and boys are dogs ...," he said. "Hollering at women on the street was what guys were supposed to do (거리에서 여성들에게 유혹하는 말을 소리치는 것은 남자들이 해야 하는 것이었다), or so I thought."
Certainly, many of the accusations we've all been hearing over the past weeks seem to extend well beyond gray areas. But if there is confusion about those gray areas -- that is, what defines harassment at all -- it's possible there could be confusion about what is absolutely off-limits, and what is, perhaps, part of some men's archaic or delusional idea of the male-female mating dance.
No woman asks to be assaulted or harassed -- or touched in a manner that makes her feel uncomfortable. And yet, how else to explain the Bush family spokesman admitting the former president of the United States would often "pat women's rears" in a "good-natured manner" as "David Cop-a-feel (몰래 상대방을 성적으로 만진 행위)"?
Which means we need to do a better job making damn sure every single man -- and woman -- is clear about what constitutes inappropriate behavior.
That's hopefully what the current conversation will do. In addition to holding men accountable for their past actions, it will open up dialogue so that misunderstanding is no longer an acceptable excuse. Because let it be known: Whether you're a man or a woman, good-natured rear-patting of someone you aren't 100% sure would welcome it is never as good-natured as you might like to believe (남성이든 여성이든 간에, 좋은 의도로 누군가의 엉덩이를 만지는 행위가 100% 환영 받을 행동은 아니라는 것이며, 그 행위가 생각하는 것처럼 좋은 의도는 결코 될 수 없다).